Study: Women in the Workforce & the Glass Ceiling in America

Study: Women in the Workforce & the Glass Ceiling in America

Some highlights include:

  • The odds of a job promotion for a woman are higher compared to a man in just five of the 55 largest industries and equal in just one, based on Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) data.
    • The five industries where the odds are higher for women than men include motor vehicle and parts dealers; air transportation; broadcasting (except internet); performing arts, spectator sports and related industries; and couriers and messengers.
    • Publishing is the only industry in which women have equal odds of promotion compared to men.
  • A higher percentage of women managers in an industry does not necessarily indicate that women and men have equal odds of promotion.
    • In the hospital industry, for example, women make up 68.8% of all managers (3rd-highest among the 55 industries we analyzed), but this industry still ranks seventh-hardest for women to break the glass ceiling.
    • The odds of promotion for men in the hospital industry are more than double compared to women (12.8% for men vs. 7.9% for women).
  • Across all private-sector industries, there are no states or major metros where women had higher or equal odds of promotion than men. Some places, however, are more favorable for women.
    • Looking at all 50 states and D.C., the place with the most favorable odds for women to break the glass ceiling is the District of Columbia.
    • Out of the 15 most-populous metro areas, the odds of promotion for women are highest in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward area.

The full report on the study, including the methodology and infographics, can be found here: